Fu Tou was used in Song Dynasty (960-1279) and evolved into the official hat for the emperor and officials. Scholars and persons with literary reputation advocated using Fu Tou to wrap around heads. Fu Tou was varied in style. Square-shaped Fu Tou was a mainstream the there was round-shaped Fu Tou with distinction of hard strips and soft strips. During four hundred odd years from Song to Yuan Dynasties (960-1279) not only liked wearing hat but also created lots of new styles. By Yuan Dynasty, Hats worn in winter were mainly made of leather, known as “winter hat”. The brim of winter hat was upturning. The top of the hat was in round and heart shape. The back of the hat hung in the shoulders. Li Shi Mao was worn in summer. Li Shi Mao and Li Mao were similar in shape, hence its name. it’s the Mongolian unique style in Yuan Dynasty.
There’s increasing trend to use Guo Jin in Ming Dynasty which exceeded any other dynasties. Wang Jin and Si Fang Ping Ding Jin were widely used at that time. Men in Ming Dynasty wore various types of hats. Ordinary men mostly wore Liu He Yi Tong Hat which followed in Qing Dynasty with a little variation in its shape and structure. Some had acuminate top and others had left top with a seed as decoration. Hat brim varied in narrow and broad. Stitched jades were found on the front of some hats. The shape looked like a watermelon.
Portrait of literatus in the late Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Rujin was a scarf worn among scholars in Ming Dynasty. It was in round shape with vine inside and crape covering the surface. The body of Rujin was sewn in four pieces of cloth. Four top corners rose in square shape dropping two bands on the back.
Si Fang Ping Ding Jin is also known as “Square Scarf”. It was worn among literatus and common people prevailed in Ming Dynasty. It’s made of black gauze which is either foldable for expandable in square shape.
A man wearing Tang Jin in Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Tang Jin also known as “soft scarf” is made of black gauze. Its shape was similar to FuTou of Tang Dynasty (618-907) with difference in hanging two strips of cloth. There’s a vine in Tang Jin to extend in spread-angled. It was used as informal dress in Song Dynasty (960-1279)., which could be worn by anyone regardless of social status.